Crypto News

ViaBTC Capital | Reasons Behind Solana’s Frequent Downtime: Design Flaws in the Gas Economy

What is the gas fee? In the blockchain world, the gas fee is a fee that users have to pay to the blockchain network for each transaction. For example, when a user makes a transfer on Ethereum, miners must package his transaction and put it on the blockchain to complete the transaction. This process consumes the computing resources of the blockchain, and the fee paid to miners is called the gas fee. Gas economy Imagine that each public chain is a society or a city, and gas would be the currency that users need for various activities in the city, and the economic designs of gas have far-reaching impacts on the public chain’s future development. Today, we will illustrate the significance of the gas economy from the perspectives of performance and value capture. Performance – The frequent network congestion of Solana In early May, Solana’s mainnet lost consensus, and block generation was suspended for 7 hours. The mainnet was down due to the NFT minting of a new NFT project. Users turned to bots for sending transactions as much as possible to increase their success rate of minting. This led to 6 million transactions per second on the Solana mainnet, which jammed the network. Moreover, as Solana transmits consensus messages as a special transaction message between validators, the heavily congested network also disabled the normal transmission of consensus messages, eventually leading to the loss of consensus. This is not the first downtime of Solana. Last September, the public chain suffered a 17-hour downtime due to the massive trading volume created by on-chain bots during the launch of the hit project Raydium. A 30-hour Solana downtime incident happened at the end of January 2022 when the BTC price plunged from $44,000 to $33,000 during a market crash and created plenty of arbitrage opportunities. Meanwhile, the liquidation/arbitrage bots on Solana, which center on DeFi, kept creating massive transactions, which resulted in network downtime. When comparing Solana to a conventional IT system, we can tell that the downtime resembles a DDoS attack. 「A DDoS (distributed denial-of-service) attack refers to adding traffic from multiple sources to exceed the processing capacity of a network so that real users would not be able to acquire the resources or services they need. Attackers often launch a DDoS attack by sending more traffic to a network than it can handle or sending more requests to an application than it can manage.」 Instinctively, many people would think that Solana’s downtime is rooted in its public chain designs: the monolithic design of Solana inevitably leads to downtime. At the moment, mainstream public chains use two kinds of designs: the modular and the monolithic. The modular architecture refers to a modularized deployment where consensus, storage, and execution are implemented separately so that the collapse of the execution layer will not compromise the security of the consensus layer. At the same time, mainstream designs adopted by Avalanche’s Subnet, ETH 2.0, and Celestia’s Rollup can all diverge massive transactions. On the other hand, although Solana as a whole is designed to enable fast transactions, scalability and security were sacrificed. However, the modular design of a public chain is not the key because although the consensus stayed secure, the individual rollup could still suffer from downtime when facing overwhelming transactions in a very short period. In other words, the modular design just lowered the systemic risks (e.g., a certain rollup could halt but the rest can survive) for the public chain. The gas design is the real reason behind Solana’s downtime, and more network downtime is on the way if the design is not improved. – The gas mechanisms of different chains The figure below shows the gas designs of three mainstream public chains. On Solana, the gas fee is based on the number of signatures. The more signatures a transaction uses, the higher the gas fee. However, the maximum memory capacity of each transaction is fixed, and so is the maximum gas fee per transaction, which helps users easily calculate the cost of sending massive transaction requests. Moreover, transactions on Solana are not sequenced, which means that when the cost of sending massive requests is lower than the profit (arbitrage, NFT minting, etc.), users would use bots to send transactions on a large scale to increase the likelihood of the execution of their transactions. This is also the reason behind the downtime events that took place on Solana. Ethereum and Avalanche share similar gas designs. Both feature the base fee and the priority fee, which creates an inherent sequencing issue because transactions with a higher priority fee would be first executed. As such, although users can still use bots to create massive transactions on Ethereum and Avalanche, their transactions will not be executed no matter how many requests are sent when the priority fee becomes insufficient, and they have to wait in line. Considering the cost of gas, such a design eliminates the possibility of network downtime arising from massive transactions at the economic level. Source[1] – Improvement by Solana Economic isolation has always served its purpose better than methodological isolation. Solana has already started to build its own Fee Market by introducing a concept similar to the priority fee. Meanwhile, Metaplex, Solana’s NFT market, will also adopt a new concept called Invalid Transaction Penalty, which means that users will have to pay a fee for invalid transactions when minting NFTs. Value capture Value capture is the reflection of a gas economy via the market cap of the gas (the native crypto of the chain). The market cap of a native coin is roughly determined by two factors: cash flow and monetary premium. – Cash flow When it comes to charging the gas fee, most public chains follow the same approach: lower the gas fee as much as possible to attract users from Ethereum. From the perspective of cash flow, such an approach is unsustainable. Of the three mainstream public chains, only Ethereum stands with a considerable net cash inflow, although the network is still issuing more Ethers. If we consider additional issuance as a type of subsidy, then the net expenditure of Ethereum per day would be about $25.7 million if the annual issuance rate stands at 3.21%. Solana and Avalanche, on the other hand, have an income of $6,250 and $42,000 a day on average, with a daily net expenditure of $4.6 million and $1.86 million and a yearly issuance rate of 6.93% and 5.22%. The high net expenditure & high issuance rate significantly dilute the market cap of the public chain coins. Source[2] Let’s turn to the destinations of cash flows. Under Ethereum’s current mechanism, the base fee is burned, while the priority fee is offered to miners. Compared with the gas burning and distribution mechanisms of Solana and Avalanche that offer the gas fee to validators, the miner reward is a design that compromises value capture. Ethereum uses the PoW design for block generation, and most of the miners adopt a business model under which tokens that have been mined are sold to cover the mining cost (such as electricity fees and maintenance costs). Therefore, the part of the gas fee paid to miners will most likely go out from the ecosystem. It would be better to give the gas fee to validators because the cost of running a node is not as high as operating a mining factory. Since there are not significant ongoing operating cost, validators are more likely to invest the rewards they’ve received in the nodes, which makes the ecosystem safer without diluting the value of the native coin. Burning fees might be the most direct and effective way to capture valuee and benefits both node stakers and token holders. In addition, MEV constitutes another major source of revenue for public chains. According to statistics from Flashbots, from 2020 to now, $600 million worth of MEV has been paid to miners, which is a conservative estimate. Source[3] – Monetary premium Monetary premium refers to the appreciation of a public chain coin in terms of its practical value and value storage. Most existing public chain coins are carrying out massive issuance, which makes them poor value storage, and the practical value forms the backbone of their market cap. The growth of the ecosystem of a public chain coin will create scenarios where it can be used as a payment method. For instance, most NFT transactions are settled with public chain coins. Meanwhile, most emerging public chains also consider the practical value as the primary means of appreciation, which is why they have set negligible gas fees to attract traffic and new users. Meanwhile, some public chains have built foundations worth hundreds of millions of dollars to encourage more developers to build DApps in their ecosystem. The logic behind such an approach is to make big investments to attract users in the initial stage and try to recover the cost later. Conclusion To sum up, the gas design of a public chain will have profound impacts on the future development of a public chain, and a poor design could lead to poor value capture and even performance bottlenecks. When evaluating a public chain project, we can also get a rough picture of its development strategy and future growth through its gas designs.   [1] https://docs.solana.com/implemented-proposals/transaction-fees#congestion-driven-fees,https://ethereum.org/en/developers/docs/gas/,https://docs.avax.network/quickstart/transaction-fees/ [2] https://cryptofees.info/,https://moneyprinter.info/,https://solanabeach.io/ [3] https://docs.solana.com/implemented-proposals/transaction-fees#congestion-driven-fees,https://ethereum.org/en/developers/docs/gas/,https://docs.avax.network/quickstart/transaction-fees/

Crypto News Ethereum

Uniswap Slingshots 45% – Can UNI Blaze Past Its 7-Day Rally?

Uniswap is once again hogging the headlines following the token’s comeback in the wake of optimistic signs that the bear market may be winding down. In the past week, UNI, its native token, has seen enormous growth, as the decentralized exchange’s trading volumes have rivaled those of Ethereum, the blockchain on which it is constructed. Multiple news agencies stated that Uniswap had exceeded the Ethereum network in terms of transaction fees. The flagship DEX collected more than $4 million, surpassing the second-largest blockchain. UNI increased by roughly 45 percent in the last week, reaching $5.46, its highest level in more than three weeks. Uniswap Making Northbound Trajectory The biggest DeFi exchange has been trending upward since the beginning of the week. Looking at the price trend over the last few days, it appears that UNI’s main objective is to close June on a positive note. In addition, the stockpiling of UNI tokens by whales is a significant component in the token’s price bump. After a debilitating first half of the year, rising fees on Uniswap may be an indication that the DeFi market is beginning to recover. UNI total market cap at $4.14 billion on the weekend chart | Source: TradingView.com This year, total value locked (TVL) in DeFi has shrunk by more than 60 percent, according to data from DeFi Llama. Katie Talati, an analyst at Arca, attributes the DeFi exchange’s most recent accomplishment to quickly increasing volatility, which led to a substantial increase in trading volumes. Simultaneously, Ethereum has witnessed a significant fall in user activity, whereas layer-2 solutions are gaining popularity because of their low transaction fees. UNI Facing Bullish Momentum Uniswap is among those that have benefited from the recent market restoration, having lately attempted a price turnaround. UNI is up 2% in the last 24 hours, which is a significant increase for the token since it dropped to $3.39 during the last slump. Faced with the continued bullish advance, there is no selling opportunity for bears in the $5.8 to $6.2 resistance zone, which has been in place for more than 30 days and has been repeatedly retested. Although bears are still prominent in the bull market, bulls do not wish to relinquish their UNI token holdings. This year, Uniswap has lost less than 50 percent of its total value locked (TVL). This week has also seen modest inflows, with the TVL increasing by 11 percent to $5.1 billion. Enhanced participation with Ethereum Layer 2s may contribute to the exchange’s rising popularity. Already embraced by major organizations like Polygon and integrated into other Ethereum-based applications, Uniswap has a large user base. Featured image from Cryptokio, chart from TradingView.com

Altcoins

Billionaire Mark Cuban Analyzes One of His Largest Crypto Investments, Outlines How Play-To-Earn Economies Can Recover

Billionaire and Shark Tank star Mark Cuban is weighing in on how blockchain-based play-to-earn (P2E) games can revamp their economy. In a new interview with Bankless, Cuban, who’s an investor in Axie Infinity (AXIE), says that the game needs to find a business model that generates enough revenue so that it can create sustainable incentives […]

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Bitcoin Crypto News

Bitcoin May Not Reclaim All-Time High For Another Two Years, Binance CEO

Bitcoin has recovered above $20,000 but since then, there has not been any significant upward movement. This has led to speculations on whether the digital asset would be able to reclaim its all-time high in the near future. Binance CEO, Changpeng Zhao, has weighed in and shared his thoughts on this debate, and according to the CEO, such recovery should not be expected anytime soon. Another Couple Of Years For ATH In a recent report, the CEO of the world’s largest crypto exchange Binance has shared some rather bearish sentiments for the short-term for bitcoin. The digital asset which had touched $69,000 in November last year has been unable to recover to that point and Zhao has explained that such recovery will not be taking place anytime soon. Related Reading | Bitcoin Miner Liquidations Threaten Bitcoin’s Recovery The exchange founder said that after dropping so much from its all-time high, it would take some time for the market to see such prices again. “I think given this price drop, from the all-time high of 68k to 20k now, it will probably take a while to get back,” the CEO said. “It probably will take a few months or a couple of years.” However, it is not all grim given that the price today would have been highly welcomed four years ago, the founder said. An example is when bitcoin had reached its peak last cycle, almost touching $20,000. Investors had rejoiced at this price before the market had retraced into a bear market. “20k we think is very low today. But you know, in 2018, 2019, if you told people bitcoin will be 20k in 2022, they would be very happy. In 2018/19, bitcoin was $3,000, $6,000.” BTC starts another recovery trend | Source: BTCUSD on TradingView.com Bitcoin On The Charts The cryptocurrency Bitcoin has been on the rise lately. After touching as low as $17,600, the current price point has provided a much-needed reprieve for investors. However, as the market is balancing out, more bearish indicators are beginning to emerge. Related Reading | Low Bitcoin Prices Trigger Inflows, But Investor Sentiment Remains Weak Confidence in bitcoin has dropped over the last couple of weeks as investor sentiment had taken a massive blow. Additionally, bitcoin had gone on to close another week in the red, marking more red closes so far for the year than green closes. As such, it has given bears a stronger hold over the market, especially in the short term. The sell-offs which continue to rock the market still threaten its position above $20,000. As such, it has been unsuccessful when trying to break the $21,2176 resistance point. However, there is support brewing at the $20,090 level, showing that bulls do not plan to go down without a fight. Featured image from CNBC, chart from TradingView.com Follow Best Owie on Twitter for market insights, updates, and the occasional funny tweet…

Bitcoin Crypto News

Bitcoin Whale Presence On Derivatives Still High, More Volatility Ahead?

On-chain data shows Bitcoin whales are transferring large amounts to derivatives exchanges right now, a signal that more volatility could be ahead for the crypto. Bitcoin All Exchanges To Derivatives Flow Continues To Show High Value As explained by an analyst in a CryptoQuant post, BTC whale activity on derivatives exchanges still seems to be high. The relevant indicator here is the “all exchanges to derivatives exchanges flow,” which measures the total amount of Bitcoin moving from spot exchange wallets to derivatives. When the value of this metric spikes up, it means whales are currently moving a large number of coins to derivatives exchanges right now. Such a trend usually occurs around lows in the price of the crypto as whales look to get themselves long positions. Related Reading | Bitcoin Recovery Slows Down As Whale Inflows Remain Elevated On the other hand, low values of the indicator show whales aren’t moving much coins to derivatives at the moment. This kind of trend has historically lead to tops in the value of the coin. Now, here is a chart that shows the trend in the Bitcoin all exchanges to derivatives flow over the last couple of years: Looks like the value of the metric has been quite high recently | Source: CryptoQuant As you can see in the above graph, the Bitcoin spot to derivatives flow has spiked up recently, suggesting that whale activity is pretty high right now. In fact, the current value of the indicator is actually the highest ever in the history of the cryptocurrency, implying there is an all-time high rate of whales on derivatives currently. Related Reading | Bitcoin May Have Hit Bottom According to These Indicators, BTC Targets $23K? Historically, the price of the crypto has observed significant volatility whenever the metric’s value has been elevated. Based on this trend, the quant believes that the value of the coin could still see further fluctuations in the near future. The analyst also notes that a reduction in the all exchanges to derivatives flow will need to be there, for the volatility to die down. BTC Price At the time of writing, Bitcoin’s price floats around $21.1k, up 4% in the last seven days. Over the past month, the crypto has lost 27% in value. The below chart shows the trend in the price of the coin over the last five days. The value of the crypto seems to have surged up over the last couple of days | Source: BTCUSD on TradingView After hitting a low of below $18k a week ago, Bitcoin has been trying to recover. So far, the crypto has managed to break above $21k again, but it’s yet unclear whether this recovery will last. Featured image from Unsplash.com, charts from TradingView.com, CryptoQuant.com

Bitcoin Crypto News

Is Bitcoin Like Buying Google Early? Check Out The Shocking Comparison

Before the recent selloff, Bitcoin was positioned as the next big thing. Investing and trading legends like billionaire philanthropist Paul Tudor Jones say it is like investing in Steve Jobs’ Apple early, or like getting in on the ground floor on Google. A new comparison suggests that even the latest price action is very much like if you had bought Google early. Here is a closer look at the shocking comparison along with the happy ending that should give crypto holders feeling uneasy some comfort. Bitcoin Versus Google Comparison Predicts Bull Finale Ahead Of Recession Bitcoin is a hard subject for many to wrap their head around. The lack of a physical object associated with the asset makes it feel more akin to magic internet money. Related Reading | Bitcoin Weekly RSI Sets Record For Most Oversold In History, What Comes Next? Those who do properly comprehend the cryptocurrency’s potential, compare it to like investing in a piece of the internet. It has also been compared to investing in Apple or Google early.  However, a new comparison inspired by technical analyst Gert van Lagen shows just how accurate that statement might be. BTCUSD compared to Google during prior to The Great Recession | Source: BTCUSD on TradingView.com On the left, is the last decade plus of Bitcoin price action. On the right is Google just ahead of The Great Recession. With a recession possibly ahead of us, the comparison isn’t without merit. The Happy Ending For Google: A Search Engine Giant Emerges The above comparison has been changed from the analyst’s initial interpretation, but the comparison remains just as jarring. The example suggests that Bitcoin is nowhere near done with the current cycle. Although that provides hope for bulls, the same comparison does show the primary motive wave coming to a conclusion with wave 5, taking the price of Google back to below wave 4. Related Reading | Did A “Zig-Zag” Correction Shake Out The Crypto Market? If the same were to happen to Bitcoin, price could fall below the 2017 low eventually, reaching $2,000 per coin during any recession ahead – if it occurs. Many believe the recession is already here, which is why the recent crypto selloff has been so severe. If it isn’t, the market could recover to new highs and while the market is blind, the recession could finally creep in. Although the correction was especially severe, Google did just fine | Source: NASDAQ-GOOGL on TradingView.com Ultimately, the correction ended, and the primary uptrend continued higher. The technical analysis methods used in the above charts is referred to as Elliott Wave Theory. The study believes that all markets move in the same wave patterns based on human emotion cycles, hence why the same patterns could appear in two entirely different assets. INVITE: join @elliottwaveintl for a FREE live #crypto trading webinar on 6/28 @ 11am. 🌊 2 EW experts will give a 1-hr lesson on Elliott Wave setups in crypto – and explain what’s really going on with #Bitcoin You can sign up for free at this link 👉 https://t.co/Hi2WUPW22y pic.twitter.com/MKMTtjZYPa — Tony "The Bull" Spilotro (@tonyspilotroBTC) June 17, 2022 Follow @TonySpilotroBTC on Twitter or join the TonyTradesBTC Telegram for exclusive daily market insights and technical analysis education. Please note: Content is educational and should not be considered investment advice. Featured image from iStockPhoto, Charts from TradingView.com

Bitcoin Blockchain Crypto News

CoinLoan integrates crypto analytics platform Elliptic to guard users from threats

CoinLoin, an EU-licensed crypto lending platform, announced it has integrated security protocols from Elliptic, a blockchain analytics provider. This integration benefits all CoinLoan users as it protects them from a spectrum of cyber threats. Currently, 66% of the crypto volume runs through exchanges using Elliptic. It covers over 98% of global trading volume, providing actionable […]

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Crypto News

ApeCoin Shed $2.5 Billion From Its Market Cap In May – Investor Appetite Fading?

The month of May’s crypto market disaster did not fail to bring down along with it one of the “rising stars” in the crypto space, ApeCoin. ApeCoin price has shown a robust performance in the face of the crippling crypto market crash. However, the bulls were still able to lift APE by about 50% higher from the coin’s low at $3.11. As of this writing, APE was trading at $4.25, up 4.1% in the last seven days, and selling just below the newly established swing high at $4.35. Suggested Reading | Bitcoin Steady Above $20K After Drop To $17K – A Slow Climb To Green? ApeCoin Market Cap Down By Half Thursday’s data from Coingecko indicates that ApeCoin is among the top 50 crypto assets by market capitalization, having closed May with a market value of around $1.27 billion. As a result of the decline in the value of other digital currencies, this amount appears large, but it reflects a 56 percent decline from its market value. APE’s high trading volume of $3.37 billion as of May 1 translated to a market value in excess of $4.55 billion. A high volume of liquidation by coin holders rose on May 1 and accelerated from May 9 to 13, contributing significantly to the decrease in APE’s market value. Experts say this is because of the broader geopolitical and global climate, including uncertainties in the ongoing war in Ukraine, among other factors. Factors Contributing To APE Price Decline It’s not just in the crypto field that things are not looking bright. Living expenses are growing, interest rates are rising, a recession is approaching, and inflation is skyrocketing. The US S&P 500 is currently in a bear market, and stock markets are shaky as well. APE total market cap at $1.27 billion on the daily chart | Source: TradingView.com According to a number of market analysts, these are some of the causes chipping away at the value of APE. On May 1, APE began at $20.02, achieved an intraday high of $20.04, dropped 21 percent to an intraday low of $15.69, and ended at $15.97. As a result of losing more than one-fifth of its value on the first trading day of the month, APE was unable to recover and continued to fall throughout the rest of May, reaching new lows. Suggested Reading | Dogecoin Price Jumps As Elon Musk Reiterates Support For Meme Crypto At Qatar Forum APE began trading on May 1 at $20.02, achieved a monthly top of $20.04 on the same day, hit a monthly low of $5.25 on May 11, and finished the month at $6.76. This represents a 66 percent decline between the opening and closing prices of APE in May. Featured image from Gravitate.news, chart from TradingView.com